Trump's NASA Budget Proposal

06/06/2017

NASA logo The Trump administration is proposing a 19 billion dollar budget for NASA in fiscal year 2018 - a less than 1% decrease from 2017 - as part of the overall 1.1 trillion dollar draft budget. The 2018 budget eliminates NASA's Office of Education which is used for engaging and educating Americans in NASA's overall mission.

The budget focuses on deep space exploration rather than Earth centric research. NASA's acting administrator said in a statement "The FY2018 proposal is a positive budget overall for NASA".

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Industry News

A new approach to making airplane parts, minus the massive infrastructure

Engineers have developed a method to produce aerospace-grade composites without the enormous ovens and pressure vessels. The technique may help to speed up the manufacturing of airplanes and other large, high-performance composite structures, such as blades for wind turbines.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200113124504.htm

报告称,航空变得更安全,但事故的代价更高昂

报告称,航空变得更安全,但事故的代价更高昂 cheryl.heng@av… Wed, 12/18/2019 - 06:37

主要保险提供商安联全球企业及特殊风险有限公司Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty)和安伯瑞德航空大学在一份新的报告中表示飞机碰撞和坠机事故占所有航空相关保险索赔价值的一半以上57%),相当于93亿美元占索赔金额的四分之一以上27%)

Aircraft collisions and crashes account for more than half the value of all aviation-related insurance claims (57%), equivalent to $9.3 billion, and more than a quarter of claims by number (27%), major insurance provider Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University said in a new report.

他们在11月的报告中说:“尽管航空业安全记录的改善,特别是致命事故发生量方面的改善毋庸质疑,但我们仍然看到保险索赔的数量和金额在不断增加,这意味着飞行员和保险公司都还不能沾沾自喜。”

 “Although the improvement in the aviation sector’s safety record—particularly with regards to the number of fatal accidents—cannot be questioned, it continues to see a high volume and growing magnitude of insurance claims, meaning aviators and insurers alike cannot be complacent,” their November report said.

该报告分析了从2013-18年度开始的50,000多项航空保险业索赔,总价值超过163亿美元。

The report analyzed more than 50,000 aviation insurance industry claims worth more than $16.3 billion from 2013-18.

碰撞和撞机事故还包括硬着陆、机鸟相撞和跑道事故等事件。分析显示,在过去五年中,有470起跑道事件导致索偿,造成了超过8.83亿美元的损失。跑道事故平均索赔总额将近200万美元。

Collision and crash claims also include incidents, such as hard landings, bird strikes and runway incidents. The analysis showed there have been 470 runway incidents resulting in claims over the five years, spurring more than $883 million of damages. The average runway claim totaled almost $2 million.

该报告称:“飞机越来越复杂,也导致了索赔金额更高。”复合材料越来越普遍,修复起来比传统的金属合金更昂贵,更耗时。

 “Increasingly sophisticated aircraft are also contributing to more expensive claims,” the report said. Composite materials, increasingly prevalent, are more expensive and time-consuming to repair than traditional metal alloys.

该报告说:“飞机设计、技术和制造的日益复杂化也导致着陆事件的代价更高,累及整个机队,例如2013年波音787梦幻客机由于锂离子电池引起的电气系统问题,以及最近,在2018年和2019年的5个月内,波音737Max发生的两起致命坠机事故。”

 “The increasing complexity of aircraft design, technology and manufacturing is also leading to more costly grounding incidents, involving entire fleets, as in the case of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner in 2013, following electrical system problems stemming from lithium-ion batteries, and more recently following two fatal crashes involving the redesigned Boeing 737 MAX within five months in 2018 and 2019,” according to the report.

同时,随着许多美国原告律师继减少主要航空公司损失之后又从更多事故中寻求更高的惩罚性赔偿,因此每位乘客的索赔要求也在增加。报告说,考虑到大型商用飞机的受欢迎程度,无论是较长的窄体还是小型的宽体飞机都可以搭载数百名乘客,引发关注的坠机事故可能会迅速增加赔偿成本。报告作者指出:“由于每位乘客可能获得的赔偿高达数百万美元,一次重大的航空事故可能会导致10亿美元的责任损失。”

At the same time, liability claims per passenger are increasing with many U.S. plaintiff attorneys seeking higher punitive awards from a wider range of incidents following fewer major airline losses. Considering the popularity of larger commercial aircraft, whether longer narrowbodies or small widebodies can carry hundreds of passengers, a headline-grabbing crash can quickly rack-up compensation costs, the report said. “With potential awards per passenger in the millions of dollars, a major aviation incident could subsequently result in a liability loss of $1 billion,” authors noted.

其他处罚支出的因素似乎也在增加。据报道,仅在美国就发生过将近15,000起野生生物与飞机相撞事件,例如鸟机相撞事故,平均索赔额为360,000美元。而且,更多由气候变化引起的动荡事件,特别是在欧洲和北美之间的航班上,正在引发更多赔偿。

Other triggers of payouts appear to be rising, too. Nearly 15,000 reported wildlife collisions with aircraft such as bird strikes in the U.S. alone occurred with an average claim of $360,000. And, more incidents of turbulence attributable to climate change—particularly on flights between Europe and North America—are spurring compensation.

报告指出,与此矛盾的是,航空仍然在变得越来越安全。作者说:“尽管乘客人数创纪录,但统计数据显示,飞行从未如此安全。”从1959年到2017年,全球500架商用客机机队事件中有29,298例死亡记录。但在2008年至2017年之间,发生了37起事故,造成2199人死亡,还不到总数的8%。

Paradoxically, aviation continues to become more and more safe, the report noted. “Despite a record number of passengers, statistics show that flying has never been safer,” the authors said. From 1959 to 2017, there were 29,298 recorded deaths from 500 global commercial passenger jet fleet events. But between 2008 and 2017, there were 2,199 fatalities from 37 events, or less than 8% of the total number.

据航空安全网Aviation Safety Network)发布于201812日的Aviation Daily报道去年2017仅发生10起涉及商用客机的致命事故造成44名机上人员和35名地面人员死亡是有记录以来死亡事故和死亡人数最少的一年。2018年,该网共记录了15起致命客机事故和556起死亡事故,按照致命事故发生数量排名,这是有史以来第三安全的年份,而按照死亡人数排名,则是第九安全的年份。2019年的统计数据预计将在2020年1月发布。

The last year, 2017, saw just 10 fatal accidents involving commercial airliners, resulting in the deaths of 44 aircraft occupants and 35 people on the ground—the lowest number of fatal accidents and fatalities on record, according to the Aviation Safety Network (Aviation Daily, Jan. 2, 2018). For 2018, the network recorded a total of 15 fatal airliner accidents and 556 fatalities, making it the third safest year ever by the number of fatal accidents and the ninth safest in terms of fatalities. Statistics for 2019 are expected in January 2020.

安联公司的报告称,飞行失控是造成致命事故的最常见原因。

The Allianz-Embry report said loss of control in flight is the most frequent cause of fatal accidents.

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Source: https://aviationweek.com/asia-air-transport-mro/ch-accidents-more-expensive

飛行は安全になっているが、事故は高額になっていると報告

飛行は安全になっているが、事故は高額になっていると報告 cheryl.heng@av… Wed, 12/18/2019 - 06:27

主要な保険会社であるAllianz Global Corporate and SpecialtyおよびEmbry-Riddle航空大学の最新レポートによると、航空機の墜落と衝突は、全ての航空関係の保険金請求額の半分以上(57%)を占めます。これは93億ドルに相当し、総額の4分の1以上(27%)です。


「航空部門による安全への改善報告—とりわけ死亡事故件数に関する—が問題にされていないにもかかわらず、保険金請求額は上がり続けており、航空会社も保険会社も無関心ではいられないことを意味する」と11月のレポートは伝えています。


そのレポートの分析によると、2013年から2018年にかけて、航空保険分野における5万件以上の請求は163億ドル以上に相当します。


さらに、墜落と衝突による補償は、ハードランディングやバードストライク、滑走路事故などの事故も含みます。分析によると、470件の滑走路事故があり、その結果5年以上の支払い請求が発生し、損害額が8830億ドルを超えました。滑走路事故による請求の平均総額はほぼ2億ドルでした。


「ますます高度化している航空機が、請求を高額にしている一因にもなっている」、と報告されました。複合材料の適用が増加しており、それまでの金属合金に比べて、修理に費用も時間もかかります。


「さらに、航空機の設計と技術、製造がますます複雑化しており、機体全体に関わる被害の大きい地上事故を起こしている。2013年のボーイング787 Dreamlinerの事故の場合、リチウムイオンのバッテリーから電気系統に問題が生じた。最近、再設計されたボーイング737 MAXが、2018年から2019年の5か月以内に、死者を出す2度の墜落事故を起こした」、と報告されました。


同時に、乗客からの賠償請求が、多くのアメリカの原告弁護団と共に増加しています。主要航空会社の損失の減少に続いて、広範囲な事故による高額な懲罰的賠償を求めます。大型の民間航空機の需要を考慮すると、機体の長いナローボディ機や機体の短いワイドボディ機が何百人の乗客を運ぶことができるかどうか、見出しをとらえる墜落事故は補償金支払いに直結する、とレポートは伝えます。「乗客から何百万ドルの補償を求められる可能性によって、主要航空会社は事故に続き10億ドルの負担につながる」、と著者は指摘します。


それ以外の引き金が支払いを増加させているように思われます。報告されているおよそ1万5千件の、アメリカのバードストライクなど野生動物の衝突だけで、平均36万ドルの補償を引き起こします。さらに、気候変動による多くの乱気流事故—とりわけヨーロッパと北アメリカ間のフライトで—は、補償金を跳ね上げています。


逆説的ではあるが、レポートの指摘によると、航空はますます安全になっています。「乗客の人数を記録しているにもかかわらず、統計によると、安全なフライトは一度もなかった」、と著者は述べています。1959年から2017年にかけて、500機の国際線の民間ジェット機事故によって、29,298人が死亡したと記録されています。しかし、2008年から2017年の間に、37件の事故で2,199人が死亡しました。これは死亡者数全体の8%以下です。

Aviation Safety Network によると、ちょうど昨年の2017年に、民間航空機による10件の死亡事故がありました。その結果、着陸時に44人の乗組員と35人が亡くなりました—記録されている最も少ない死亡事故件数と死亡者数です(Aviation Daily, 2018年1月2日)。2018年、Networkは、計15件の航空機の死亡事故と556人の死者を報道しました。死亡事故の件数によってこれまでで3番目に安全な年であり、死亡事故の点では9番目に安全な年でした。2019年の統計は2020年1月に公表される予定です。


Allianz-Embry reportは、飛行中の制御不能が死亡事故を頻繁に起こすと伝えました。

Aircraft collisions and crashes account for more than half the value of all aviation-related insurance claims (57%), equivalent to $9.3 billion, and more than a quarter of claims by number (27%), major insurance provider Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University said in a new report.

“Although the improvement in the aviation sector’s safety record—particularly with regards to the number of fatal accidents—cannot be questioned, it continues to see a high volume and growing magnitude of insurance claims, meaning aviators and insurers alike cannot be complacent,” their November report said.

The report analyzed more than 50,000 aviation insurance industry claims worth more than $16.3 billion from 2013-18.

Collision and crash claims also include incidents, such as hard landings, bird strikes and runway incidents. The analysis showed there have been 470 runway incidents resulting in claims over the five years, spurring more than $883 million of damages. The average runway claim totaled almost $2 million.

“Increasingly sophisticated aircraft are also contributing to more expensive claims,” the report said. Composite materials, increasingly prevalent, are more expensive and time-consuming to repair than traditional metal alloys.

“The increasing complexity of aircraft design, technology and manufacturing is also leading to more costly grounding incidents, involving entire fleets, as in the case of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner in 2013, following electrical system problems stemming from lithium-ion batteries, and more recently following two fatal crashes involving the redesigned Boeing 737 MAX within five months in 2018 and 2019,” according to the report.

At the same time, liability claims per passenger are increasing with many U.S. plaintiff attorneys seeking higher punitive awards from a wider range of incidents following fewer major airline losses. Considering the popularity of larger commercial aircraft, whether longer narrowbodies or small widebodies can carry hundreds of passengers, a headline-grabbing crash can quickly rack-up compensation costs, the report said. “With potential awards per passenger in the millions of dollars, a major aviation incident could subsequently result in a liability loss of $1 billion,” authors noted.

Other triggers of payouts appear to be rising, too. Nearly 15,000 reported wildlife collisions with aircraft such as bird strikes in the U.S. alone occurred with an average claim of $360,000. And, more incidents of turbulence attributable to climate change—particularly on flights between Europe and North America—are spurring compensation.

Paradoxically, aviation continues to become more and more safe, the report noted. “Despite a record number of passengers, statistics show that flying has never been safer,” the authors said. From 1959 to 2017, there were 29,298 recorded deaths from 500 global commercial passenger jet fleet events. But between 2008 and 2017, there were 2,199 fatalities from 37 events, or less than 8% of the total number.

The last year, 2017, saw just 10 fatal accidents involving commercial airliners, resulting in the deaths of 44 aircraft occupants and 35 people on the ground—the lowest number of fatal accidents and fatalities on record, according to the Aviation Safety Network (Aviation Daily, Jan. 2, 2018). For 2018, the network recorded a total of 15 fatal airliner accidents and 556 fatalities, making it the third safest year ever by the number of fatal accidents and the ninth safest in terms of fatalities. Statistics for 2019 are expected in January 2020.

The Allianz-Embry report said loss of control in flight is the most frequent cause of fatal accidents.

 

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Source: https://aviationweek.com/asia-air-transport-mro/jp-accidents-more-expensive

ロシア製R-77の内部 (Russia’s R-77 In Vympel Missile Factory)

ロシア製R-77の内部 (Russia’s R-77 In Vympel Missile Factory) cheryl.heng@av… Mon, 12/16/2019 - 06:58

モスクワ市長セルゲイ・ソビャーニンが最近ヴィーンペル GosMKBを訪問—国有企業70周年を記念した訪問—したことは、施設を開放し、現地で製造されているR-77 (AA-12 Archer) など多くの興味深いミサイルを展示する貴重な機会となりました。


訪問時に展示されていた、R-77 (RVV-AE)の短距離版のように見える空対空ミサイルに、最も多くの関心が寄せられました。「ロシアの新型空対空ミサイル」と呼ばれるこの製品は、スホーイ社製Su-57戦闘機の小型兵器用コンパートメントから展開する予定です。このロシア製ミサイルはロッキードマーティン社のCudaミサイルに匹敵するとのことです。


しかし、詳しく見ていくと、組み立てられた正規のRVV-AEミサイルに、シーカやレーザー近接信管セクション、制御システムのコンパートメント、折り畳み式の格子フィンといった特定のセクションがあるのは明らかです。このミサイルは、弾体の中央部分—ロケットモータと翼を含む—がなく、弾頭もないようです。展示しているミサイルは、基本型のRVV-AEの生産サイクルが移行段階にあると考えられます。


R-77とは何か?


アクティブレーダーの空対空ミサイルであるロシアのヴィーンペル製R-77 (NATOコードネームであるAA-12アッダーとしても知られている)は、AIM-120アムラームに匹敵します。1984年5月、MiG-29Mが初めて発射しました。


長年にわたり、ヴィーンペルが生産した唯一の型は、RVV-AEの空対空ミサイルの輸出型でした。しかし、少数のRVV-AEミサイルの輸出型は、ロシア空軍の保有するミサイルに含まれました。RVV-AEの生産量は、7,000から8,000発と推定されますが、正確な数は分かりません。生産者であるヴィーンペるが公表するRVV-AEの最大射程は80㎞です;ミサイル重量は177㎏です。


RVV-AEミサイルの仕様を詳しく知りたい方は、下のプラス記号をクリックしてください。

 

以上は、Piotr ButowskiがAviation Week & Space Technologyに書いた記事の簡略版です。展示している興味深いR-77とその他のデバイスに関する詳細は、記事全文をお読みください。全文を英語でご覧いただくには、ログインまたは購読していただく必要があります。

A recent trip by Moscow’s Mayor Sergey Sobyanin to GosMKB Vympel—a visit that marked the state-owned company’s 70th anniversary—served as a prime opportunity to open the doors of its facility and display a number of interesting missiles, including the R-77 (AA-12 Archer), which it manufactures on site.


An air-to-air missile on display during the visit that looked like a shortened version of the R-77 (RVV-AE) aroused the most interest. This product, called “a new Russian air-to-air missile,” is intended for deployment from the small side weapon compartment of the Sukhoi Su-57 fighter. It appears to be the Russian equivalent of Lockheed Martin’s Cuda missile.


However, upon close examination, it is apparent that these are selected sections of the regular RVV-AE missile assembled together, including the seeker, laser proximity fuse section, control system compartment and folding lattice fins. The weapon lacked the central section of the body—including rocket motor and wings—as well as, possibly, the warhead. It is most likely that the missile on display is from a stage in the standard RVV-AE production cycle.


What is the R-77?


The Vympel R-77 (also known by its NATO reporting name, AA-12 Adder) active radar air-to-air missile is the Russian equivalent of the AIM-120 Amraam. It was launched for the first time from a Mikoyan MiG-29 in May 1984.


For many years, the only version in production by Vympel was the export RVV-AE air-to-air missile. Nonetheless, a small number of exportable RVV-AE missiles found their way into the Russian Air Force’s inventory. Production of the RVV-AE may be estimated at 7,000-8,000 units, but exact numbers are unknown. The RVV-AE’s maximum range declared by the manufacturer is 80 km; the missile weighs 177 kg.

This is an abbreviated version of an article by Piotr Butowski that appeared in Aviation Week & Space Technology. More details on the R-77 and other devices of interest on display are in the full article. Login or subscribe to access the full article here.

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探秘俄罗斯R-77 (The Inside of Russia’s R-77)

探秘俄罗斯R-77 (The Inside of Russia’s R-77) cheryl.heng@av… Mon, 12/16/2019 - 06:37

莫斯科市长谢尔盖·索比亚宁(Sergey Sobyanin)最近到访GosMKB Vympel,标志着这家国有公司成立70周年。此行创造了一次绝佳机会,让GosMKB Vympel打开其厂房大门,展示许多有趣的导弹,包括在现场生产的R-77( AA-12 Archer)。


A recent trip by Moscow’s Mayor Sergey Sobyanin to GosMKB Vympel—a visit that marked the state-owned company’s 70th anniversary—served as a prime opportunity to open the doors of its facility and display a number of interesting missiles, including the R-77 (AA-12 Archer), which it manufactures on site.


访问期间展出的一种空对空导弹引起了人们的极大兴趣,该导弹看起来像是R-77(RVV-AE)的简化版。这款产品名为“俄罗斯新型空对空导弹”,旨在从苏霍伊苏-57战斗机的小型侧武器舱进行部署。它似乎相当于洛克希德·马丁公司库达(Cuda)导弹的俄罗斯版。


An air-to-air missile on display during the visit that looked like a shortened version of the R-77 (RVV-AE) aroused the most interest. This product, called “a new Russian air-to-air missile,” is intended for deployment from the small side weapon compartment of the Sukhoi Su-57 fighter. It appears to be the Russian equivalent of Lockheed Martin’s Cuda missile.


但是,经过仔细检查,很明显,这些是把常规RVV-AE导弹的选定部分组装在一起,包括导引头、激光近程熔断器部分、控制系统隔室和折叠格状翼片。这种武器缺少主体的中心部分,包括火箭发动机和机翼,还可能缺少弹头。所展示的导弹很可能来自标准RVV-AE生产周期的某个阶段。


However, upon close examination, it is apparent that these are selected sections of the regular RVV-AE missile assembled together, including the seeker, laser proximity fuse section, control system compartment and folding lattice fins. The weapon lacked the central section of the body—including rocket motor and wings—as well as, possibly, the warhead. It is most likely that the missile on display is from a stage in the standard RVV-AE production cycle.


什么是R-77?What is the R-77?


Vympel R-77(也被其北约代号AA-12 Adder著称)主动雷达空对空导弹相当于俄罗斯的AIM-120 Amraam。它于1984年5月从Mikoyan MiG-29首次发射。


The Vympel R-77 (also known by its NATO reporting name, AA-12 Adder) active radar air-to-air missile is the Russian equivalent of the AIM-120 Amraam. It was launched for the first time from a Mikoyan MiG-29 in May 1984.


多年来,Vympel生产的唯一版本是出口的RVV-AE空对空导弹。尽管如此,还是有少量可出口的RVV-AE导弹进入了俄罗斯空军的库存中。RVV-AE的产量估计在7000-8000枚,但确切的数量尚不清楚。制造商宣布的RVV-AE最大射程为80公里;导弹重177公斤。


For many years, the only version in production by Vympel was the export RVV-AE air-to-air missile. Nonetheless, a small number of exportable RVV-AE missiles found their way into the Russian Air Force’s inventory. Production of the RVV-AE may be estimated at 7,000-8,000 units, but exact numbers are unknown. The RVV-AE’s maximum range declared by the manufacturer is 80 km; the missile weighs 177 kg.


点击下方加号,了解有关RVV-AE导弹结构的更多信息。


Click on the plus signs below to find out more about the composition of the RVV-AE missile.

 

这条消息是Piotr Butowski在Aviation Week & Space Technology发表文章的摘要。全文介绍了有关R-77和其他有趣设备的更多详细信息。订阅者可以在此处访问完整的文章 (英文)。

This is an abbreviated version of an article by Piotr Butowski that appeared in Aviation Week & Space Technology. More details on the R-77 and other devices of interest on display are in the full article. Login or subscribe to access the full article here.

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Source: https://aviationweek.com/russianR77ch

ABACE 2019 D3

ABACE 2019 D3

kylee.adams@in… Sun, 12/15/2019 - 02:18

Source: https://aviationweek.com/abace-2019-d3

State of shock: 200-year-old law about gas mixtures called into question

According to a new study led by a team from The University of New Mexico, centuries-old laws about the behavior of gas mixtures do not apply in the presence of shock waves. This finding could have potential impact on everything that involves mixtures of gases exposed to a shock wave, for example, during combustion in an engine.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/12/191211145649.htm

Researchers develop thin heat shield for superfast aircraft

The world of aerospace increasingly relies on carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites to build the structures of satellites, rockets and jet aircraft. But the life of those materials is limited by how they handle heat. Engineers are now developing a design for a heat shield that better protects those extremely fast machines.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191114180037.htm

Aviation emissions' impacts on air quality larger than on climate, study finds

New research has quantified the climate and air quality impacts of aviation, broken down by emission type, altitude and location. The team found that growth in aviation causes twice as much damage to air quality as to the climate.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191107202553.htm

Carbon emissions soar as tourism reaches new heights

A researcher is examining how the flight routes people take to get to tourist destinations impact the amount of pollution in the air.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191002121719.htm